General Navigation ATPL Formulas

Get all ATPL formulas for General Navigation and 5 other ATPL subjects with explanation and example calculations in e-books.

The formulas covered

The e-book covers the following ATPL General Navigation calculations:

  • Track angle error
  • Closing angle
  • Convergency (Earth)
  • Convergency (Lambert’s projection)
  • Conversion angle
  • Departure
  • Departure: Change with latitude (Mercator chart)
  • Scale: Representative fraction
  • Scale: Change with latitude (Mercator chart)
  • Rate of descent
  • Climb / Descent gradient
  • Crosswind
  • Drift
  • Headwind

What’s inside?


A description of the formula to understand what is being calculated.


A formula in a friendly non-maths format that can be easily remembered.


An explanation with units to be used to get a correct result.


A sample question from the official EASA / UK CAA question bank.


A detailed step-by-step solution for the example given.


A cheat sheet with all formulas from the particular subject altogether.

Get 6 e-books for £18 only!